Somalia formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic under Socialist rule, is a country located in the Horn of Africa, with the Capital Mogadishu. Since the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991 there has been no central government control over most of the country's territory. The internationally recognized Transitional Federal Government controls only a small part of the country. Somalia has been characterized as a failed state and is one of the poorest and most violent states in the world. It has the longest coastline on the continent,and its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains and highlands.Hot conditions prevail year-round, along with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall.  ( Reference to Wikipedia )  

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Since 1991, no central government has controlled the entirety of the country, despite several attempts to establish a unified central government.The northwestern part of the country has been relatively stable under the self-declared, but unrecognized, sovereign state of Somaliland. The self-governing region of Puntland covers the northeast of the country. It declares itself to be autonomous, but not independent from Somalia. The Islamist Al-Shabaab controls a large part of the south of the country. Without a central government, Somalia's inhabitants subsequently reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either civil, Islamic, or customary law.The internationally recognized Transitional Federal Government controls only parts of the capital and some territory in the centre of the nation, but has reestablished national institutions such as the Military of Somalia, and is working towards eventual national elections in 2012, when the interim government's mandate expires.During the two decades of war and lack of government, Somalia has maintained an informal economy, based mainly on livestock, remittance/money transfer companies, and telecommunications.

Mogadishu    (and largest city) 
Official language(s)
-  Somali, Arabic
Ethnic groups
-  Somalis (85%),
-  Benadiris,
-  Bantus
-  Other non-Somalis (15%)
-  Somali; Somalian
-  Coalition government 
-  President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed 
-  Prime Minister Abdiweli Mohamed Ali
-  British Somaliland 1884  
-  Italian Somaliland 1889  
-  Union and independence July 1, 1960  
-  Constitution August 25, 1979
 -  Total 637,657 km²  (43rd)   246,200 sq mi 
 -  2011 estimate 9,925,640   (86th)
 -  Density 16.12[4]/km2 (199)  6.22/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate 
-  Total $5.896 billion  (158th) 
-  Per capita $600  (223nd)
-  Somali shilling (SOS)
Time zone
-  EAT (UTC+3) 
-  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3)
-  On the right
ISO 3166 code
-  SO
Internet TLD
-  .so
Calling code
-  252
( Reference to Wikipedia )

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